A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Adaptive Transform Coding
An audio coding algorithm.

Adware
Software that automatically downloads or displays advertisements.

Asynchronous Transmission
A method of transferring data between computers where the time intervals between characters may be unequal in length.

B

Binary
Binary is a two-digit (Base-2) numerical system which computers use to store data and compute functions.

C

C#
C sharp is an object oriented programming language from Microsoft.

C++
A programming language with object-oriented features which allow the programmer to create objects within the code.

Cloud Computing
The act of storing content on remote servers through the internet as opposed to on a hard drive or local server.

CPU
Central Processing Unit. The key component of a computer system which contains the circuitry necessary to interpret and execute programme instructions.

CRM
Customer Relationship Management. Using technology to organize, automate and synchronize a company’s interactions with clients.

CSS
Cascading Style Sheet. Used to define text styles, table sizes and other aspects of web pages.

Cyber Security
The technologies, processes and practices designed to protect networks, computers, programmes and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access.

D

Data Warehouse
A central repository of data used for data analysis and reporting.

DNS
Domain Name System. Translates domain names into IP addresses; like a phonebook for the internet.

Dot Matrix
A two-dimensional patterned grid used to represent characters, symbols and images. In printers, the dots darken the paper to reproduce a selected file, while in electronic displays, the dots light up to replicate the received information.

E

Encoding
Converting information from a source into communicable symbols.

Encryption
A form of encoding that allows authorized parties alone to read its content, thereby deterring hackers and eavesdroppers.

ERP
Enterprise Resource Planning. Using software to integrate the management of information across an entire organization, enabling the flow of information between all business departments.

Ethical Hacking
Coined by IBM, the term refers to various testing methods employed to evaluate the security of an organization’s information systems.

F

Firmware
Software that is very closely tied to specific hardware, and which provides control programmes for a host device. Unlike operating systems, firmware in most instances will not be updated or otherwise altered.

G

GPU
Graphics Processing Unit. An electronic circuit that accelerates the creation of images for a display screen.

H

HTML
HyperText Markup Language. The language in which web pages are written.

J

JavaScript
A programming language that supports object-oriented, imperative and functional programming styles.

M

Malware
Portmanteau of ‘malicious’ and ‘software’. It refers to software programmed or deployed by hackers to gain access to private computer systems, disrupt operations or gather sensitive information.

Metadata
Data about data. ‘Structural metadata’ concerns the containers of data, while ‘descriptive metadata’ deals with individual cases of data content.

P

Phishing
Attempts to acquire sensitive information (such as usernames, passwords and card details) for financial gain by adopting a trustworthy guise.

R

RAM
Random Access Memory. A form of computer data storage that allows data to be accessed directly in any random order.

ROM 
Read-Only Memory. A class of storage system mainly used to distribute firmware. Data stored in ROM can only be modified slowly or with difficulty, if at all.

S

Spyware
Software that covertly gathers information from a computer.

SQL
Structured Query Language. A special-purpose programming language used for data management.

T

Trojan Horse
A form of malware that presents itself as harmless or useful, but usually opens the host computer up to unauthorized access.

U

Unicode
An industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation and handling of text.

X

XML
Extensible Markup Language. A language for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.

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